I experienced very similar issues as I investigated Linux distros.
I know your pain and I was in this process for months..
To make it short: https://kaosx.us/
On downloads, ISOs get sometimes slightly damaged, since servers slow down and the integrated download clients in the browsers are sometimes incapable to resume correctly.
Videos and other media are not affected by this since players can sort that out.
ISOs with operating systems on it can work as you describe in such scenarios.
In order to avoid that, either download ISOs via .torrents, who then get automatically checked by their clients on integrity, as in QBittorrent.
The other way around is that you check the SHA256SUM of the ISO manually.
I recommend strongly Etcher, which checks again on the stick, once the write is done.
My Laptop is running perfectly since years and I will never ever change this system.