There’s a nicely written overview article in acmqueue: Debugging Distributed Systems
Distributed systems pose unique challenges for software developers. Reasoning about concurrent activities of system nodes and even understanding the system’s communication topology can be difficult. A standard approach to gaining insight into system activity is to analyze system logs. Unfortunately, this can be a tedious and complex process. This article looks at several key features and debugging challenges that differentiate distributed systems from other kinds of software. The article presents several promising tools and ongoing research to help resolve these challenges.