Elixir v1.10.0-rc.0 released

Release: https://github.com/elixir-lang/elixir/releases/tag/v1.10.0-rc.0

Support for Erlang/OTP 21+

Elixir v1.10 requires Erlang/OTP 21+, allowing Elixir to integrate with Erlang/OTP’s new logger. Currently, this means that the logger level, logger metadata, as well as all log messages are now shared between Erlang and Elixir APIs.

We will continue improving the relationship between the logging systems in future releases. In particular, we plan to expose all log levels and runtime filtering functionalities available in Erlang directly into Elixir in the next Elixir version.

This release also adds two new guards, is_struct/1 and is_map_key/2, thanks to the strict requirement on Erlang/OTP 21+.

Releases improvements

Elixir v1.9 introduced releases as a mechanism to package self-contained applications. Elixir v1.10 further improves releases with bug fixes and new enhancements based on feedback we got from the community. The highlights are:

  • Allow the dual boot system of releases to be disabled on environments that are boot-time sensitive, such as embedded devices

  • Track and raise if compile-time configuration is set or changes at runtime (more in the next section)

  • Support for easily adding extra files to releases via overlays

  • Allow RELEASE_DISTRIBUTION to be set to none in order to fully disable it

  • Add a built-in :tar step that automatically packages releases

See the full CHANGELOG for more improvements.

Improvements to sort-based APIs in Enum

Enum.sort/1 in Elixir always sorts from lowest to highest. If you want to sort from highest to lowest, you need to call Enum.sort/2 with a custom sorting function, such as Enum.sort(collection, &>=/2), which is not immediately obvious to someone reading the code.

To make matters worse, comparison operators, such as <= and >=, perform structural sorting, instead of a semantic one. For example, using >= to sort dates descendingly won’t yield the correct result. Therefore, to sort dates from more recent to oldest, one has to write Enum.sort(dates, &(Date.compare(&1, &2) != :lt)).

Elixir v1.10 streamlines the sorting functions by introducing both :asc and :desc shortcuts:

Enum.sort(collection, :asc) # the default
Enum.sort(collection, :desc) # in reverse

Furthermore, if you want to perform semantic comparison, you can pass a module that provides the relevant comparison function. For example, to sort dates:

Enum.sort(birth_dates, Date)
Enum.sort(birth_dates, {:asc, Date})
Enum.sort(birth_dates, {:desc, Date})

This new API has also been added to Enum.sort_by, Enum.min_by, Enum.max_by, and friends.

Tracking of compile-time configuration

All applications in Elixir come with an application environment. This environment is a key-value store that allows us to configure said application. While reading the application environment at runtime is the preferred approach, in some rare occasions you may want to use the application environment to configure the compilation of a certain project. This is often done by calling Application.get_env/3 outside of a function:

defmodule MyApp.DBClient do
  @db_host Application.get_env(:my_app, :db_host, "db.local")

  def start_link() do
    SomeLib.DBClient.start_link(host: @db_host)

This approach has one big limitation: if you change the value of the application environment after the code is compiled, the value used at runtime is not going to change! For example, if you are using mix release and your config/releases.exs has:

config :my_app, :db_host, "db.production"

The new value will have no effect as the code was compiled to connect to “db.local”, which is mostly likely unavailable in the production environment.

For those reasons, reading the application environment at runtime should be the first choice. However, if you really have to read the application environment during compilation, Elixir v1.10 introduces a Application.compile_env/3 function:

@db_host Application.compile_env(:my_app, :db_host, "db.local")

By using compile_env/3, Elixir will store the values used during compilation and compare the compilation values with the runtime values whenever your system starts, raising an error in case they differ. This helps developers ensure they are running their production systems with the configuration they intend to.

Compiler tracing

This release brings enhancements to the Elixir compiler and adds new capabilities for developers to listen to compilation events.

In previous Elixir releases, Elixir would compile a database of cross references between modules (such as function calls, references, structs, etc) for each project. Although developers could traverse this database, they often requested more events or more information to be made available.

In Elixir v1.10, we have replaced this database by compiler tracing. This means that developers can now directly listen to events emitted by the compiler to store and collect all the information they need (and only the information they need).

Elixir itself is already using the new compiler tracing to provide new functionality. In particular, the compiler now checks for undefined function warnings more consistently. In previous versions, we would emit undefined function warnings only for files in lib, skipping test files and scripts.

Furthermore, in Elixir v1.10 developers can now disable undefined function warnings directly on the callsite. For example, imagine you have an optional dependency which may not be available in some cases. You can tell the compiler to skip warning on calls to optional modules with:

@compile {:no_warn_undefined, OptionalDependency}
defdelegate my_function_call(arg), to: OptionalDependency

Finally, as consequence of these improvements, some functionality related to xref (our previous database), has been deprecated in favor of the new compiler tracing.

Other enhancements

The calendar data types got many improvements, such as sigil support for third-party calendars, as well as the additions of DateTime.now!/2, DateTime.shift_zone!/3, and NaiveDateTime.local_now/0.

There are many improvements related to the Elixir AST in this release too. First of all, Code.string_to_quoted/2 has two new options, :token_metadata and :literal_encoder, that give more control over Elixir’s parser. This information has already been available to the Elixir formatter for a couple versions and has now been made public. Furthermore, all public metadata entries in the AST nodes have been extensively documented. These changes alongside the compiler improvements from previous section means tools like Credo and Boundary now have a better foundation to analyze the source code.

Finally, ExUnit comes with two small but important improvements: ExUnit.CaptureIO can now be used in tests that run asynchronously and we have added “data-structure diffing” when performing assertions with pattern matching. So now, whenever an assertion such assert %{field: value} = expression() fails, ExUnit will show both left-hand and right-hand sides, highlighting the parts that did not match in red.

v1.10.0-rc.0 (2020-01-07)

1. Enhancements


  • [Application] Add Application.compile_env/3 and Application.compile_env!/2 for reading values at compilation time and tracking if they accidentally change during runtime
  • [Calendar] Allow custom calendar representations in calendar sigils
  • [Calendar] Add c:Calendar.parse_time/1, c:Calendar.parse_date/1, c:Calendar.parse_naive_datetime/1 and c:Calendar.parse_utc_datetime/1 callbacks to calendar behaviour
  • [CLI] Add support for NO_COLOR environment variable
  • [Code] Add :token_metadata and :literal_encoder support to Code.string_to_quoted/2
  • [Code] Add compiler tracing to lift events done by the compiler
  • [Code] Return {:error, :unavailable} in Code.ensure_compiled/1 if module is in a deadlock
  • [DateTime] Add DateTime.now!/2 and DateTime.shift_zone!/3
  • [Enum] Speed up getting one random element from enumerables
  • [Enum] Add Enum.frequencies/1, Enum.frequencies_by/2, and Enum.map_intersperse/2
  • [Enum] Allow a sorting function on Enum.min/max/min_by/max_by
  • [Enum] Add asc/desc and compare/1 support to Enum.sort/2
  • [Exception] Add version alongside app names in stacktraces
  • [Function] Add Function.identity/1
  • [Kernel] Add Kernel.is_struct/1 and Kernel.is_map_key/2
  • [Kernel] Warn when function head comes immediately after the implementation instead of before the implementation
  • [Kernel] Warn if duplicate key is found in struct declaration
  • [Kernel] Print all undefined functions as warnings and then raise. This allows users to see all undefined calls at once, when it would otherwise require them to compile the code multiple times
  • [Keyword] Add Keyword.pop!/2 and Keyword.pop_values/2
  • [Map] Add Map.pop!/2
  • [MapSet] Optimize multiple operations
  • [Module] Add Module.has_attribute?/2
  • [Module] Add @compile {:no_warn_undefined, mfa_or_module} to turn off undefined function warnings
  • [NaiveDateTime] Add NaiveDateTime.local_now/0
  • [Record] Warn if duplicate key is found in record declaration
  • [String] Update to Unicode 12.1
  • [StringIO] Add :encoding option to StringIO and optimize get_chars operation


  • [ExUnit.Assertions] Support diffs in pattern matching and in assert_receive
  • [ExUnit.CaptureIO] Supports capturing named devices in asynchronous tests


  • [IEx] Warn on circular file imports when loading default .iex.exs
  • [IEx] Allow customization of the continuation prompt on IEx


  • [Logger] Allow start_options to be configured on Logger’s GenEvent
  • [Logger] Integrate Elixir’s Logger with Erlang/OTP 21+'s logger. This means setting up the logger level in Elixir will automatically change the logger level for Erlang and vice-versa


  • [mix compile] Add --profile time flag to profile compilation steps
  • [mix deps.compile] Add --skip-umbrella-apps flag. The new flag does not compile umbrella apps. This is useful for building caches in CD/CI pipelines
  • [mix deps.unlock] Add --check-unused flag. The new flag raises if there are any unused dependencies in the lock file
  • [mix release] Allow RELEASE_DISTRIBUTION to be set to none
  • [mix release] Support overlays in rel/overlays
  • [mix release] Allow configuration reboot to be disabled in releases
  • [mix test] Add support for simple round-robin test partitioning across multiple machines
  • [Mix.Project] Add MIX_DEPS_PATH environment variable for setting :deps_path
  • [Mix.Project] Add Mix.Project.deps_scms/1 that returns deps with their SCMs
  • [Mix.Task] Add Mix.Task.Compiler.after_compiler/2 callback, to simplify compilers that may need to run something at multiple steps

2. Bug fixes


  • [EEx] Ensure multiline do/end with no spaces compile under trim mode


  • [Enum] Allow positive range slices on infinite streams given to Enum.slice/2
  • [Kernel] Raise error on functions/guards without implementation
  • [Keyword] Ensure keyword replace and update preserve order
  • [Module] Raise instead of silently failing when performing a write module operation during after-compile
  • [Module] Fix @macrocallback definitions with a when clause
  • [Path] Fix Path.absname/1 to correctly handle UNC paths on Windows
  • [Stream] Close with correct accumulator in Stream.resource/3 when called for a single-element list
  • [Stream] Allow Stream.cycle/1 to be double nested inside Stream.cycle/1
  • [URI] Preserve slashes in URIs without authority


  • [IEx] Exit IEx session if the group leader exits
  • [IEx] Allow pry to be used in non-tty terminals


  • [mix compile] Do not filter out warning for external files from diagnostics
  • [Mix.Project] Ensure user given :manager to dependencies has higher precedence than the SCM one
  • [Mix.Project] Recompile umbrella children when config files change and mix compile is called from the umbrella root
  • [Mix.Task] Always recompile before running tasks from dependencies
  • [Mix.Task] Ensure project’s Logger config is used when running Mix tasks

3. Soft-deprecations (no warnings emitted)


  • [Code] compiler_options/0 is deprecated in favor of compiler_option/1


  • [mix xref] calls/0 is deprecated in favor of compiler tracer
  • [mix xref] The xref.exclude option has been moved to elixirc_options.no_warn_undefined as the xref pass has been moved into the compiler

4. Hard-deprecations


  • [Code] Code.load_file/2 has been deprecated in favor of Code.require_file/2 or Code.compile_file/2
  • [Code] Code.loaded_files/0 and Code.unload_file/1 have been deprecated in favor of Code.required_files/0 and Code.unrequire_file/1 respectively
  • [Code] Code.ensure_compiled?/1 is deprecated in favor of Code.ensure_compiled/1
  • [String] String.normalize/2 has been deprecated in favor of :unicode.characters_to_nfc_binary/1 or :unicode.characters_to_nfd_binary/1 which ship as part of Erlang/OTP 20+
  • [Supervisor] Supervisor.Spec.supervise/2 has been deprecated in favor of the new Supervisor child specification
  • [Supervisor] The :simple_one_for_one strategy in Supervisor has been deprecated in favor of DynamicSupervisor


  • [Logger] :compile_time_purge_level application environment configuration has been deprecated in favor of the more general :compile_time_purge_matching config
  • [Logger] Deprecate logging non-chardata values


  • [mix compile.xref] This check has been moved into the compiler and has no effect now
  • [mix xref deprecations] This check has been moved into the compiler and has no effect now
  • [mix xref unreachable] This check has been moved into the compiler and has no effect now


  • Precompiled.zip SHA1: ed80d00c3d805da50787f8dd9d0d02acf6ae5668
  • Precompiled.zip SHA512: b878d802c9ad9d9d8ee2493c653d4e5335f68fce2c237e0e5c13c2af0c8855eb6219842b480b794fc3076606a4832c90932bed8262ce4c0164f5af6756f26997
  • Docs.zip SHA1: c6fac84cca76c6ff9450e9dfc305e1db24ecee75
  • Docs.zip SHA512: 3e4eaa181ab9cd002ff0dbdd4790a630e422fcbfd35d0fe10987bfac0ffa8ceeda313e1c06381063426ba02a63b44f959c5e4151663dcdd612e77a68a06888fa

Have fun!


As this is a release candidate, to try it out you likely have to install it manually, using a tool like asdf, kiex or similar. More information is available in our install page .

Other than that, please do give the RC a try! Your feedback is very important. :slight_smile:


Love the Tracking of compile-time configuration. Fell for this trap couple of times.


Absolutely thrilled about both the sorting improvements (particularly date sorting) and pattern matching diffing in ExUnit!


Not sure I understand the mix xref changes. Is it going to continue to work?

Yes. They are now done by the compiler instead of a Mix task.

1 Like

I see. So the changelog notes were more like a clarification how the internals of that will change, correct? While it still works the same on the command line – yes?

Almost. Because it is now part of the compiler, there is no longer a command to run it individually. To run it, you compile the code. :slight_smile:

Okay, you lost me. :confused:

Can I use mix xref callers Module.function/1 with Elixir 1.10, on the console?

1 Like

Haha, sorry! mix xref callers still works, only the warnings+deprecated commands in xref were moved to the compiler.


Thanks! :049:


Application.compile_env/2 is a great addition, thanks for the awesome work :clap:


Enum.sort/2 is very nice, thanks :blush:


The documentation suggests this form works:

mix xref callers MyMod

Is it working for specific function from the module as well, e.g. mix xref callers MyMod.my_fun? (I can’t quickly install 1.10 to check this myself). From what I see, finding function callers was removed in this commit https://github.com/elixir-lang/elixir/pull/9228/files#diff-a288e7895d3524e899c567d5cb6a456aL31

What does “next Elixir version” mean in this context? 1.11.0 or 1.10.1?

v1.11.0! New features go in the minor version (the y in x.y.z).


Could anybody install it through asdf?

I’ve changed in .tool-versions in two machines and got same error:

# .tool-versions
elixir 1.10.0-rc.0
➜ asdf install
==> Checking whether specified Elixir release/reference exists...
==> Downloading 1.10.0-rc.0 to /var/folders/nv/5v553v0d2qv6_mwmkt5v3x6c0000gn/T//elixir-precompiled-1.10.0-rc.0.zip
** Resuming transfer from byte position 243
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
  0   243    0     0    0     0      0      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--     0
==> Copying release into place
  End-of-central-directory signature not found.  Either this file is not
  a zipfile, or it constitutes one disk of a multi-part archive.  In the
  latter case the central directory and zipfile comment will be found on
  the last disk(s) of this archive.
unzip:  cannot find zipfile directory in one of /var/folders/nv/5v553v0d2qv6_mwmkt5v3x6c0000gn/T//elixir-precompiled-1.10.0-rc.0.zip or
        /var/folders/nv/5v553v0d2qv6_mwmkt5v3x6c0000gn/T//elixir-precompiled-1.10.0-rc.0.zip.zip, and cannot find /var/folders/nv/5v553v0d2qv6_mwmkt5v3x6c0000gn/T//elixir-precompiled-1.10.0-rc.0.zip.ZIP, period.

try asdf install elixir ref:v1.10.0-rc.0

imagine elixir ref:v1.10.0-rc.0 should work in .tool-versions


thanks, that’s it, it’s building now. It works in .tool-versions like you’ve suspected :+1:

1 Like

Brilliant work everyone!